The  melting of polar  ice as a cause of sea level changes, or whether tectonic movements were responsible for changing coastlines have been points of debate ever since it was recognised that unexplained eustatic fluctuations did occur.

Today it is clear that changing climates are the result of changing conditions at the polar caps. Long term variations of climate are slow, but predictable. Short term variations are sudden and unpredictable, and in turn have catastrophic effects [specifically to solar salt evaporation pan production] . In particular the heat absorbing capacity of the ice caps [Albedo] when the ice becomes colored can have a relatively sudden erratic influence upon the immediate world climate, and on sea levels and historically on the critical supply of Sodium Chloride salt availability.


Hektoria Glacier photographed by Pedro SkvarcaAntarctic Glaciers Accelerate in Wake of Ice Shelf Breakup

Sea levels - Solar evaporation -
A hypothesis for the change of ocean levels depending on the albedo of the polar ice caps - M.R.Bloch - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ]


When investigating the salt trade and coastal salt production,  it has become evident that coastal flooding and at other times lowering of the sea level, made the filling of solar evaporation pans very difficult. This seems to have been due to erratic changes of sea levels particularly in the Mediterranean, where salt production had been relatively easy because of a very small and predictable tide level, during certain periods, and impossible at other times. The evidence that has accumulated has indicated flooding of salt fields on coasts according to a curve:-

Eustatic changes in sea levels, have greatly affected salt production

At the end of the last ice age, approximately 8000 BP, it is estimated, the sea level rose by more than 60 m. The eustatic changes of the oceans in prehistoric and historic times are recognised as erratic and steep. A hypothesis is proposed to explain these erratic changes with Albedo changes of the polar ice caps, caused in turn by erratic volcanic and terrestrial dust fall-out. Ash layers in the Antarctic ice cores are connected with historic dislocations of salt production on ocean coasts and of maritime civilisations. Albedo changes through the dusting of the ice caps are proposed to be the cause for the decline of glaciation periods generally. Such albedo changes are connected with volcanic activity on the one hand, and loess formation on the other, and caused in turn by the growth of the ice caps.
[ A hypothesis for the change of ocean levels depending on the albedo of the polar ice caps - M.R.Bloch -
1964 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ]
- full document

"Small oscillations following the ice age, resulted from conditions at Antarctica"

Hektoria Glacier photographed by Pedro SkvarcaAntarctic Glaciers Accelerate in Wake of Ice Shelf Breakup

Antarctic glaciers respond rapidly to climate change, according to new evidence found by NSIDC scientists. In the wake of the Larsen B Ice Shelf disintegration in 2002, glaciers in the Antarctic Peninsula have both accelerated and thinned en route to the Weddell Sea. The findings indicate that ice shelf breakup may rapidly lead to sea level rise.

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GRL Paper >>
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The post glacial eustatic level changes of the oceans are explained through ALBEDO [Datasets] changes of the Antarctic ice cap. Erratic Albedo changes are caused mainly by fallout of volcanic dust. The history of erratic volcanic activity in pre-historic and historical times should be compared and correlated to the eustatic changes of the ocean levels


Cole-Dai, J. and E. Mosley-Thompson, 1999.

The Pinatubo eruption in South Pole Snow and its potential value to ice core paleovolcanic records.

Annals of Glaciology, 29, in press.

Snow samples collected in the 1996 austral summer at South Pole show that sulfate concentrations in snow and, by inference, sulfur aerosol concentrations in the Antarctic atmosphere were elevated from the end of 1991 to mid-1994 over a stable, non-volcanic background. The new data support earlier findings that the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption and the Hudson eruption in the same year deposited volcanic sulfate and tephra in South Pole snow and provide strong evidence of the global distribution of volcanic materials from the Pinatubo eruption. In this study, snow samples were taken in 6 snow pits spatially distributed around the South Pole Station in order to evaluate the local spatial variability of volcanic signals due to glaciological variables such as snow accumulation rates and snow redistribution by wind after initial deposition. The results indicate that Pinatubo sulfate flux varies by as much as 20% throughout a 400 km2 area centered around the South Pole Station. This glaciological variability probably represents the likely range of volcanic signals due to variations in snow deposition and post-depositional changes. The Pinatubo eruption provides an unprecedented opportunity to estimate aerosol mass loadings by explosive volcanic eruptions found in Antarctic ice cores via a quantitative relationship between aerosol mass loadings and sulfate flux in Antarctic snow. Here the satellite-estimated Pinatubo sulfur dioxide emission and the measured volcanic sulfate flux in snow, with an assumed linearly quantitative relationship, are used to calculate sulfur dioxide loadings for several well-known volcanic eruptions in the past 300 years covered by a shallow (42-meters) South Pole firn core drilled in 1996. The errors for the calculated mass loadings are estimated by means of the glaciological variability associated with Pinatubo volcanic flux.

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RUAPEHU erupts again The latest news of the most dangerous of volcanoes to the civilised world. Ice CoresIce core evidence now from many sources, confirms past, and future probability of catastrophic changes in the rise and fall of the world's sea levels. In the last 2000 years, major volcanic eruptions have indirectly shifted climates, and increased sea levels, specifically in the Mediterranean, for example,  causing havoc to Roman salt making on the sea shores at Ostia and Ravenna.
[August 1996]

One of the most dangerous Volcanoes in the southern Hemisphere, with the potential of spreading its ash over the Antarctic, causing the ice cap to melt.

Ash - most probably from volcanoes, coloured the Antractic, and changed its Albedo, The Ice cores today are the evidence and a warning of a future catastrophe. -. It almost certainly was a factor in a catastrophic rise of 72 m at the Dead Sea from 60 BC - 90 BC.

For years, researchers have assumed that the climate in the tropics and sub-tropics has been fairly stable, [Mosley-Thompson ]. But the new core from Guliya, along with their other low-latitude ice core records, suggests that the tropics and sub-tropics may have experienced considerable climate variability during the last 100,000 years. 

[ A hypothesis for the change of ocean levels depending on the albedo of the polar ice caps - M.R.Bloch -
1964 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ]
- full document


Salt Spray - Bromine [

[   ] burstingbubbles.pdf 03-Mar-2002 20:33 207k
 [   ] nitrogenorigin.pdf 03-Mar-2002 20:32 414k
[   ] oceanspray.pdf 03-Mar-2002 20:33 357k

Index of warnings and data   While investigating  the historical references of the catastrophic effects of sealevel changes to salt production supply and distribution,   perhaps we could prepare for similar events that may occurring our own era.


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